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Maxwell Breaker L and WB Coal Co 1910
U. S. Aluminum Co. C & I Police Badge
U. S. Aluminum Co. C & I Police Badge Reverse
New Kensington Plant 1922 Photo
Hilldale Coal & Coke C & I Police Badge
  Hilldale Coal & Coke C & I Police Badge Reverse.jpeg - COAL & IRON POLICE BADGE HILLDALE COAL & COKE CO. – Coal and iron police badge with C & I POLICE marked above the number 59 centered on badge and H. C. & C. CO. marked below; 2 1/4 in. tall by 1 3/4 in. wide; working clasp on back, Hilldale Coal & Coke Company’s private police force, part of the industrial police forces known as Coal & Iron Police which were legal in Pennsylvania from 1865 to 1931. COAL & IRON POLICE - In 1865, the Pennsylvania State Legislature passed State Act 228 which empowered the railroads to organize private police forces. In 1866, a supplement to the act was passed extending the privilege to "embrace all corporations, firms, or individuals, owning, leasing, or being in possession of any colliery, furnace, or rolling mill within this commonwealth." The men of the private police forces were called "Coal and Iron Police" and received commissions from the state although their salaries were paid by the various coal companies for whom they worked. Although they were hired to protect the property of their respective coal companies and the homes of coal company officials, they were used to intimidate and break up striking mine workers, and if necessary, evict them and their families from their homes. In some communities the coal and iron police were accused of assault, kidnapping, rape, and murder. A total of over 7,632 commissions were given for the Coal and Iron Police. On June 30, 1931, Governor Pinchot revoked all coal and iron police commissions, thus ending a 66-year period of sad mining history in the state of Pennsylvania. HILLDALE COAL & COKE COMPANY - The Hilldale Coal & Coke Company (H.C. & C. Co) was organized under the laws of Pennsylvania November 26, 1902, by H. E. Clark, J. D. Ake, S. H. Hicks and J. O. Clark. Their general office was located at Glen Campbell, Indiana County, PA. The company owned two nearby bituminous coal mining operations on the Pennsylvania railroad lines and had a capacity exceeding one thousand gross tons per day.  Owing to discrimination practiced against it by the Pennsylvania Railroad Company in the rating of its mines and car supply, it was able to ship but a small portion of its daily output capacity. As a result, the company is perhaps best known for the 5 year period of litigation started in 1905 that resulted in an order from the Interstate Commerce Commission and PA courts that the Pennsylvania Railroad Company did discriminate against Hilldale Coal and Coke and established policies in how independent coal companies must be fairly treated by common carriers. In 1914, the company employed ninety-nine miners.  
Coke Ovens Indiana County PA photo ca 1910
Colorado and Pikes Peak Consolidated Mining Cripple Creek
Colorado Bureau of Mines Bell Sign
Cupel Mould
Cupel Mould II

Hilldale Coal & Coke C & I Police Badge Reverse | COAL & IRON POLICE BADGE HILLDALE COAL & COKE CO. – Coal and iron police badge with C & I POLICE marked above the number 59 centered on badge and H. C. & C. CO. marked below; 2 1/4 in. tall by 1 3/4 in. wide; working clasp on back, Hilldale Coal & Coke Company’s private police force, part of the industrial police forces known as Coal & Iron Police which were legal in Pennsylvania from 1865 to 1931. COAL & IRON POLICE - In 1865, the Pennsylvania State Legislature passed State Act 228 which empowered the railroads to organize private police forces. In 1866, a supplement to the act was passed extending the privilege to "embrace all corporations, firms, or individuals, owning, leasing, or being in possession of any colliery, furnace, or rolling mill within this commonwealth." The men of the private police forces were called "Coal and Iron Police" and received commissions from the state although their salaries were paid by the various coal companies for whom they worked. Although they were hired to protect the property of their respective coal companies and the homes of coal company officials, they were used to intimidate and break up striking mine workers, and if necessary, evict them and their families from their homes. In some communities the coal and iron police were accused of assault, kidnapping, rape, and murder. A total of over 7,632 commissions were given for the Coal and Iron Police. On June 30, 1931, Governor Pinchot revoked all coal and iron police commissions, thus ending a 66-year period of sad mining history in the state of Pennsylvania. HILLDALE COAL & COKE COMPANY - The Hilldale Coal & Coke Company (H.C. & C. Co) was organized under the laws of Pennsylvania November 26, 1902, by H. E. Clark, J. D. Ake, S. H. Hicks and J. O. Clark. Their general office was located at Glen Campbell, Indiana County, PA. The company owned two nearby bituminous coal mining operations on the Pennsylvania railroad lines and had a capacity exceeding one thousand gross tons per day. Owing to discrimination practiced against it by the Pennsylvania Railroad Company in the rating of its mines and car supply, it was able to ship but a small portion of its daily output capacity. As a result, the company is perhaps best known for the 5 year period of litigation started in 1905 that resulted in an order from the Interstate Commerce Commission and PA courts that the Pennsylvania Railroad Company did discriminate against Hilldale Coal and Coke and established policies in how independent coal companies must be fairly treated by common carriers. In 1914, the company employed ninety-nine miners. Download Original Image
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